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International Marketing

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Introduction

There are always problems in the relationships between different cultures and values that hold authority in these cultures. Most of them are classified as philosophical problems. When trying to explain human activity, culture is usually an important tool. Culture has a way of explaining how the values are mediated and the kind of demands imposed on populations in relation to the behaviour (Altman et al 2012).

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Cultural Paradoxes

Pre-modern Japan was aware of the West but never viewed them as equally important as their Chinese counterparts who were highly regarded by the Japanese. Japan had so much confidence in their relationship with China to the extent that theirs was an ideology of China centrism. What this ideology did is dividing the rest of the world into China and non-China (Friday 2012).

Japan viewed China as the centre of the world and by doing so made their relationship with china seem like one of a civilized China and a backward Japan (Toyne 1989). Japanese citizens though had a nationalistic spirit but not untl in the middle of the 18th century, that Edo helped create a culture distinct and unique from the Chinese. Nationalism of the Japanese received a great boost from Edo’s efforts (Robertson 2012).

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Levitt in 1983 wrote an article containing material on global markets. His article sparked debate among scholars and practitioners. The debate was whether international markets where integrating or that focus should be made on how differences are highlighted. Others argue that international similarities should be the point of focus rather national differences (Leonidou & Samiee, 2012).

Some argue that since markets are more and more becoming homogenous thus focus should not be on national differences, which are slowly becoming irrelevant. They further add that when it comes to international marketing planning, national differences should be neglected. It is still important to imagine the impact of national differences in relation to marketing activities. This is therefore reason enough to customize global marketing to suit these differences (Czinkota 2012).

Formation of regional blocs such as the European Union and the North American Free Trade Agreements and trade agreement between nations under the banner Asian and South East Nations have favoured the global view of trade (Wells 1968). This is despite several arguments and counter arguments against international trade. Such agreements are put in place to reduce trade barriers within the region. This in the end opens opportunities for companies to embrace economies of scale and the consumers of these products to benefit from a variety of products and cheaper prices too focusing on global trade (Sheth 1995).

Globalization of marketing is expected to be the most preferred line of direction for many nations (Walters 1986). It, therefore, makes every sense in looking at similarities of different nations rather than their differences when it comes to international marketing planning. When market offerings are standardized, it makes it possible for small corporate bodies to make the achievements of economies of scale (Szymanski, Bharadwaj, & Varadarajan 1993). Research shows remarkable improvements in performance that adopted standardization as part of their strategy in international marketing.

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