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The phenomenon of dissociative identity disorder (DID) is connected with multiple personality and demonic essence as well hidden aspects of the individual’s nature and capability. Such a disease may be revealed in the form of new skills or knowledge, unusual behavioral patterns or irrelevant self-perception. DID is a miscellaneous and complicated psychological development based on pathological skills or perceptions that emerge throughout the history of mankind.
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In 1816, physician Samuel Mitchel was the first scientist who described the given disorder. Nonetheless, there were vivid cases of dissociative identity disorder occurrence in ancient times. For instance, the story about a woman called Pandora and her magic box where Zeus hid sorrow and evil content. Innocent curiosity provoked the woman to open the box and free the evil into the world. The emergence of DID is usually aligned with the case of Pandora’s box as far as “Once these horrors and their effects have surfaced, they can never be pushed back inside — and, indeed, one would not want them to remain hidden, as they need to be worked with and resolved” (Sachs & Galton 156). Hence, the process of dissociative personality disorder is irreversible, namely, it either becomes another — demonic — side of a person or is cured properly.
DID was employed in the Egyptian rituals in terms of monarch progamming process. The methods used at that time aimed at controlling people’s minds. Therefore, the easiest way to do so was to induce trauma using hypnosis, tortures, or drugs. The result was a creation of various alters. Hence, DID was initiated artificially in ancient Egypt to gain maximal power.
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The cases documented by Samuel Mitchel became an official start of the dissociative identity disorder study. To be more precise, Mitchel dealt with the new personalities in the case of Mary Reynolds and with new activities and skills in the case of Rachel Baker: major symptom involved preaching in her sleep. Moreover, the patient also started writing poetry and music. The vividly documented cases by Mitchel initiated further in-depth insight and consistent study of the issue of concern. There are three significant theorists in the field of dissociation identity disorder, namely, Pierre Janet, Morton Prince, and Boris Sidis. The main direction of Janet’s research was hypnosis and the role of the unconscious in the course of identity disorder. Furthermore, “In 1993, Lauer, Black, and Keen concluded that DID was an epiphenomenon of borderline personality disorder, finding few differences in symptoms between the two diagnoses” (Gillig). As far as the definition of this disorder was controversial even at that stage of research, the scholars stated that it had no clear and unique clinical picture (Gillig). It is crucial to underline a recent study that toook place in terms of neurosciences. The aspects of major significance were considered to be memory and attention (Gillig). The scientists who started studying the given scope of DID made a conclusion that the variety of symptomatic reactions of the identity disorder “perform a protective, defensive function neurologically by creating a neuroprotective environment that ameliorates the neurotoxic effects of traumatic stress” (Gillig).
Finally, it is relevant to emphasize a substantial difference that appears between the previous studies of DID and the contemporary approach to its definition and treatment. For instance, previous research based on hypnosis and unconsciousness. At the same time, modern scientists highlight the exceptional importance of trauma that plays a predetermining role in terms of identity disorder formation and development as well as alters that denote individual essence that is often different from the social image of a person and is associated with self-representation (Gillig).
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Thus, the phenomenon of dissociation identity disorder is a miscellaneous, challenging, and progressing development that is connected with traumas, unconsciousness, and alters of a person. The major threat of DID is that there appear two different identities, and one of them may impose particular potential harm to another one. Moreover, the causes of DID are not studied completely and need more profound investigation.
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