Custom «Research Critique: Breastfeeding Knowledge and Attitudes among Future Female Physicians and Teachers in Saudi» Sample Essay
The research problem of this article is as follows. The literature search has shown that most women bottle-feed their babies despite reliable research showing that breastfeeding has many health benefits. The authors have found no research that focuses on the knowledge and attitudes regarding breastfeeding among medical and education students. Therefore, they aimed to explore knowledge and attitudes regarding breastfeeding in the female undergraduate students in the faculties of education and medicine. The authors conducted the study in the colleges of education and medicine in King Faisal University Saudi Arabia. This research problem is appropriate to understanding why women bottle-feed because it leads to comprehensive information on how young women perceive breastfeeding. However, the researchers could have focused on acquiring information from the young women from a wide variety of disciplines. Confining the researchers to studying medical and education students may have led the research to bias. Furthermore, the researchers did not have a research question that could have led them to their study. Baker and Edwards (2012) ascertain that providing a research question is vital in choosing reasonable samples for the study. In this case, the researchers did not give a clear picture of the research study by stating the question, hence showing the lack of objectivity to the readers.
The primary aim of the authors of this research study is to examine knowledge and attitudes regarding breastfeeding in women. The authors identified that the lack of breastfeeding was caused by the advancement in socioeconomic status. University education empowers women to develop upward mobility; therefore, this research could provide better results on why empowered women do not consider breastfeeding necessary.
The authors have identified various studies in their work. After introduction, the authors referred to the literature review. This act was necessary because the researchers appreciated the works that were done in regards to the subject of breastfeeding. Thus, Onwuegbuzie, Leech, and Collins (2012) argue that a literature review is paramount in every research process regardless of the type of the study because it provides previous evidence, upon which to base the study. In this case, the researchers made their study reliable by gathering statistics from various works and the World Health Organization (WHO) website. The researchers had cited a wide variety of studies until they identified a gap in the breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes among young women in Saudi Arabia. Most importantly, the researchers had studied many peer-reviewed journals to come up with the literature review, which made their study reliable.
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The research concerning breastfeeding is current because the authors cite recent works. For instance, the authors cited the study conducted by Singh (2010) that examined college females in India and found out that a majority of women in colleges held negative attitudes towards breastfeeding. Additionally, breastfeeding remains an issue of concern in modern society now. Thus, Soomro, Shaikh, Saheer, and Bijarani (2016) conducted a study on January 16, 2016 where they found out that women were not supported to breastfeed in the workplace. Eventually, they stop breastfeeding, denying their babies all the benefits that come with breastfeeding. Various researchers have also conducted studies recently on the problems of breastfeeding. Therefore, this research study is current and relevant to address the current issue in breastfeeding.
The research was a cross-sectional study. The authors do not explain the study design thoroughly and in detail in the beginning. A cross-sectional study is a research that happens for a short time. Therefore, the researchers only show the length of time that the research could cover and not the design that would be used. Consequently, the researchers could have given a clear picture of the kind of their design when describing the length of time the study could take. It is until the study reaches at the data analysis that the authors are seen analyzing qualitative data and categorizing qualitative variables. Therefore, the readers of the research could be confused on the design that would be employed upon reading the research.
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The sample is clearly defined in the study. A mathematical model was shown, where the researchers arrived at 513 students from both colleges. Furthermore, the authors applied an appropriate sampling fraction where they came up with a minimum number of 161 students from the college of medicine and 352 students from the college of education. The initial selection of students was made through systematic random sampling. Every fifth student was selected using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). This sample size is appropriate since the research is a cross-sectional study. Moreover, the sample consists only of the young women of childbearing age and therefore, the responses regarding the attitude and knowledge of breastfeeding would be reliable. However, since the researcher took a small sample, there was a risk of bias because the results of the research could apply to many women.
This study is applicable only to women who are socialized upwards but not to the women from low socioeconomic backgrounds. The authors investigate the attitudes and knowledge of breastfeeding in educated women, and it would be difficult to apply the results to women from low socioeconomic areas. For instance, from the results, most of the responses are about breastfeeding and working environment (Amin, Abdulrahman, Al Muhaidib, & Al Hamdan, 2014). Some mothers do not work and therefore, these results are inapplicable. Moreover, the researchers recommend that since there are misconceptions regarding the attitude and knowledge in breastfeeding, there should be curricular changes aiming to promote breastfeeding. This recommendation is flawed because it is inapplicable to teach breastfeeding in every institution. Students in the institutions of medicine would welcome it quickly as opposed to the students in education institutions.
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This study could have been improved on the sample part to come up with applicable results to solve the problem of breastfeeding. The study takes a sample of young females from medicine and education alone, while disregarding other areas. From the results, the only information that applies to all women is the responses about the knowledge and attitudes concerning breastfeeding. However, in the decision-making process of embracing breastfeeding, the study only benefits college students. Therefore, it cannot create a huge impact to solve the problem of breastfeeding in society. The researchers could have taken a larger sample.
The writing of the article is not clear and straightforward. For instance, the researchers do not offer the research question in the abstract. The research question is critical in giving the readers a direction to know where the research is headed. Additionally, the authors do not provide a clear explanation of the design that is going to be used. In the study, only the term ‘a cross-sectional study’ is seen. It is not clearly explained early whether the study is qualitative or quantitative. Therefore, the authors could have put the research question and methodology into proper consideration when writing the paper.
This research lays a proper foundation for the subsequent studies on the same subject. The study only focused on the physicians and teachers, but since breastfeeding is a common problem globally, other researchers can develop from this study. Additionally, further studies can be conducted on examining why students have a positive attitude while having little knowledge and misconceptions about breastfeeding.
Considerably, this research leads to an understanding of why young females have a proper attitude with limited knowledge in breastfeeding. The sample chosen is applicable for a cross-sectional study, and the results can be applied to the women who are mobilized upwards. However, the research needs to focus more on a solution that would help many women because the lack of breastfeeding or inadequate breastfeeding is a global problem. Therefore, subsequent researchers can build on the results of this research to come up with recommendations that target more women.
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